Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Heather McGee

Second Advisor

Dr. Jessica Van Stratton

Third Advisor

Dr. Ron Van Houten

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Jeana Koerber


Flashcard type, digital flashcards, paper flashcards, recall, college education, memory recall


College students frequently use flashcard-based study methods to prepare for exams and other course-related activities (Kornell & Bjork, 2007; Kornell & Bjork, 2008; Hartwig & Dunlosky, 2012, Wissman et al., 2012). Despite the popularity of flashcards, there has been little research evaluating the various methods used by students to create the flashcards and how those methods effect learning outcomes (Sage et al., 2016; Sage et al., 2019). The rise in popularity of web-based flashcard applications such as Quizlet ( and Cram (, combined with an increase in online learning, has produced a need for formal evaluation of handwriting versus typing study information onto flashcards. The present study used a post-test only mixed design to directly evaluate the effects of these two methods of flashcard creation on exam scores in an undergraduate Organizational Psychology course. We found significant differences between flashcard type, with those who completed digital flashcards scoring higher on the unit exams than those who completed paper flashcards. Social satisfaction was also assessed using a questionnaire distributed to all participants at the end of the study.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access