Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Education and Human Development

First Advisor

Dr. Virginia David

Second Advisor

Dr. Selena Protacio

Third Advisor

Dr. Louann Bierlein Palmer


English teacher education, teaching speaking skills, technology-enhanced language learning, online practice teaching, teaching speaking using technology, English preservice teachers


The novel coronavirus, namely COVID-19, has drastically forced schools and universities around the globe to implement emergency remote teaching (henceforth, ERT) in online forms. During this ERT, the personal computer, internet-accessible devices, and computer programs have expanded the opportunities of language learners to obtain more authentic materials and learning experiences. Moreover, technology enables students to record and store their speaking performance in digital forms, accommodating a new reform in English language teaching. Very little is known about how English as a foreign language (henceforth, EFL) preservice teachers, especially student teachers, implement technology in teaching speaking skills during their practice teaching. Moreover, to my knowledge, there are no studies about how such preservice teachers were prepared to teach fully online classes in ERT. This study therefore set out to investigate (a) Indonesian EFL preservice teachers’ technology integration in teaching speaking skills, (b) Indonesian EFL preservice teachers’ reasons for implementing specific technology tools in teaching speaking skills, and (c) how Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (henceforth, TPACK) influences the Indonesian EFL preservice teachers’ technology integration in teaching speaking skills during ERT.

This study employed an explanatory mixed-methods design with survey, interviews, and document analysis. This study recruited 301 (203 females and 98 males) from three education universities in Indonesia that integrated the TPACK framework. Eighteen of these participants (nine males and nine females) were interviewed after completing the survey. Then, this study also employed descriptive statistics, Structural Equation Modelling, and a data spiral analysis strategy to analyse the data.

The findings showed that the EFL preservice teachers implemented various technology tools, but most frequently implemented WhatsApp, YouTube, and Google Form for several purposes when teaching speaking skills during ERT. The interview results indicated that the participants chose WhatsApp, YouTube, and Google Form because of the features provided by the platforms to support teaching and learning activities, Internet connectivity and bandwidth issues, their familiarity with these platforms, the easy access, school requirements, and their experiences during college (including personal experiences and class experiences). The interview results also revealed some reasons for not implementing other potential social media platforms during ERT. The results of the Structural Equation Modelling showed that only technological pedagogical knowledge (henceforth, TPK) and content knowledge (henceforth, CK) contributed to technology integration, while other dimensions did not have any relationships with technology integration.

This study offers three implications to teacher education programs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Dissertation-Campus Only

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