Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Engineering and Applied Sciences

First Advisor

Pavel Ikonomov, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Mitchel Keil, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Daniel Kujawski, Ph.D.


3D hybrid metal printer, additive manufacturing (AM), computer numerical control (CNC), deposition optimization, gas metal arc welding (GMAW), subtractive manufacturing


In the additive manufacturing realm, explicitly the direct energy deposition method, there continues to be numerous advancements along with advantages to control print quality of the component and the ability to apply the successful repetition of metallic layers consecutively. Metal additive printed components have the capacity to directly use the component for the desired application or intended purpose from which the three-dimensional model was created. In contrast, plastic printers that produce components that would not hold to the physical conditions required such as a metallic component could withstand.

Research exertions were focused on improving the present Western Michigan University patented direct energy deposition printing process allowing for increased efficient printing times while ensuring quality remains within the required specified parameters set by ISO/ASTM international standards. Issues, some of them common with other metal AM processes, that have become apparent while using the 3D Hybrid metal printer include uniformity and inconsistency with the metallic additive layer, in relation to the width and elevation, porosity within each of the layers printed, and strength comparison against standard stock material. With these issues at hand, research objectives and duties were arranged into three sectors: a) the improved smooth integration between the additive and subtractive manufacturing process, b) the material testing process, c) and the 3D scanning inspection feedback and correction process for each individual additive layer. In order to deliver results to solve these problems, utilization and extensive knowledge in how to correctly and properly operate a computer numerical controlled machine, computer aided manufacturing software, and gas metal arc welding, was required. The goal of this research is to minimize or completely eliminate these additive manufacturing issues mentioned above with the 3D Hybrid Metal Printer.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access

Included in

Manufacturing Commons