Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Mary Z. Anderson, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Kelly A. McDonnell, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Allison J. Hart-Young, Ph.D.


Counseling psychology, LBG issues, psychology, supervision


Graduate programs have continued to improve over time regarding incorporating training on LGB issues into coursework and practicum experiences with less emphasis on supervision. Since supervision is a major training area where therapists learn about clients and themselves, it becomes an important area for also teaching supervisees how to work with minority populations. However, relatively absent from discussions of cultural influences in supervision is a focus on LGB concerns, and missing is the ‘how to’ within the supervisory relationship. This quantitative investigation sought to learn how clinical supervisors with knowledge of LGB issues and people implement LGB-affirmative supervision, and to explore the underlying dimensions of that LGB-affirmative clinical supervision through the use of multidimensional scaling. Twenty-six experienced and LGB-affirmative clinical supervisors were recruited through mental health organization listservs, APA-accredited university counseling center training directors, and professional contacts. Findings indicate four dimensions of LGB-affirmative clinical supervision for this sample: awareness, understanding LGBTQ+ identities, learning about minority identity experiences, and the relational process of supervision. Given that this investigation is the first to explore these dimensions, implications for future research are vast.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access