Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Stephanie Peterson, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Sacha Pence, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Jessica Van Stratton, Ph.D.

Fourth Advisor

Kwang-Sun Blair, Ph.D.


Equality-focused performance feedback, praise, preschool, reprimands, self-monitoring, teacher interactions


In the United States, Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) students are more likely to face disciplinary action (e.g., exclusion, suspension, and expulsion from the classroom) for engaging in the same challenging behaviors as their white peers (Badger et al., 2018; Little & Tolbert, 2018; Noguera, 2003). Due to the discrepancy in disciplinary practices, students are at risk of continued negative interactions with their teachers (Decker et al., 2007; Wymer et al., 2020). One way to improve teacher interactions toward BIPOC students is through equity-focused performance feedback regarding praise and reprimand rates (Knochel et al., 2022). The purpose of this study was to extend the research conducted by Knochel et al. (2020) by examining teacher-student interactions during unstructured times (i.e., choice/free play), expanding the topographies of teacher behaviors measured to include demands and social comments, and including measures of child behavior preceding teacher interactions. This study consisted of two experiments. During the first experiment, a descriptive analysis of teacher interactions was conducted. During the second experiment, the effect of self-monitoring and equality-focused performance feedback on teacher interactions was examined.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access