National Emergency Department Sample in Geriatric Subsequent Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Visits and Associations with Sex, Falls, Payor, and Discharge Outcomes

Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Interdisciplinary Health Sciences

First Advisor

Kieran Fogarty, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Robert Lyerla, Ph.D., MGIS

Third Advisor

Mark Goetting, MD, Ph.D.


Discharge outcomes, falls, geriatric, mild traumatic brain injury, national emergency department sample, older adults


The purpose of this study was to explore the variables of sex (male, female), fall mechanism of injury, payor source, and emergency department (ED) discharge outcomes in patients aged >65 who presented with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) subsequent ED visits.

A secondary data analysis was performed to assess the relationship among the independent and dependent variables listed above. The independent variables were dichotomous for age (>65, <65), sex (male, female), and fall mechanism of injury (yes, no), and categorical for payor source (Medicare, Medicaid, Private, Other). The ED discharge dependent variables were categorical [home; healthcare services (including skilled nursing facility, home care, and intermediary care)]. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate specific variables that increase the probability of affecting ED discharge outcomes. The software, SPSS v. 28 was used in the statistical calculations. The study was approved by the Western Michigan University Human Subjects Internal Review Board.

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