Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Eric M. Sauer, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Mary Z. Anderson, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Kenlana R. Ferguson, Ph.D.


Counseling, measurement, multicultural competence


Pedersen (1999) described multicultural counseling as the “fourth force” in psychology. The description is used to imply that multiculturalism is the next theory to understand human behavior, complementary to the other three forces: psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic explanations. Despite the attention being given to multiculturalism, professional organizations, training institutions, and service providers are still trying to understand what it means to have competency in multicultural counseling. Researchers have made decades of efforts to define and measure multicultural counseling competence; yet, there is still limited data about how multicultural training efforts influence these competencies and how counselor multicultural competency affects clients’ experiences in therapy (Hays, 2008; Smith & Trimble, 2016). One of the major difficulties associated with evaluating multicultural competence is the traditional methods used to measure the construct.

The purpose of this study was to follow up on the recommendations of previous research: to examine the psychometric properties of the Multicultural Counseling and Psychotherapy Test (MCPT; Gillem et al., 2016). The participants in this study were graduate-level psychology students and their clinical supervisors. Participants completed a self-report survey containing the following measures: (a) a demographic data form, (b) the Multicultural Counseling and Psychotherapy Test (MCPT; Gillem et al., 2016), and (c) the Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory-Revised (CCCI-R; LaFromboise et al., 1991). Results indicated that the MCPT is a viable measure of knowledge related to multicultural counseling.

Scores on the MCPT had statistically significant positive correlations as expected with estimated face-to-face client contact hours, presentations/publications produced related to multicultural counseling/psychotherapy, degree held (i.e., graduate degree vs. bachelor’s degree), and observer-reported multicultural competence (CCCI-R score). The overall MCPT scores had an α = .927 (n = 66), indicating an adequate level of internal consistency (DeVellis, 2017). MCPT scores had evidence of convergent validity; however, MCI and CCCI-R scores did not account for a statistically significant portion of the variance beyond level of education. Implications for practice, training, and future research are then discussed.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access

Included in

Counseling Commons