Using Explicit Instruction and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion to Teach Writing to College Students with Disabilities

Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Jessica E. Van Stratton, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Heather McGee, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Kourtney Bakalyar, Ed.D.

Fourth Advisor

Kent Johnson, Ph.D.


Explicit instruction, fluency, frequency building, writing


Proficient writing skills are critical for academic, vocational, and social outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). However, many individuals struggle to develop proficient writing repertoires. Explicit Instruction (EI) and Frequency Building to a Performance Criterion (FPBC) are two effective teaching strategies. EI is comprised of clear, direct instructions and scaffolding to support a gradual release of responsibility from teacher to student, and follows a model, lead, test format. Once a skill is mastered, it should be built to fluency. FBPC is method that uses timed practice and feedback to build skills to fluency.Thus, this study taught eight college students with disabilities to write four types of persuasive sentences (i.e., thesis statement, major point, minor point, transition sentence) using modified lessons from Writing Persuasive Compositions and FBPC sessions. Five of the eight participants met criteria for all four sentence types and demonstrated maintenance of skills during follow-up sessions. Three students demonstrated generalization of skills during quick write opportunities. Limitations and future directions for college-level writing instruction and practice are discussed.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Abstract Only

Restricted to Campus until


This document is currently not available here.