Structural Controls on the Distribution of Groundwater in Southern Sinai, Egypt: Constraints from Geophysical and Remote Sensing Observations
Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
Dr. Mohamed Sultan
Dr. William A. Sauck
Dr. Alan E. Kehew
Dr. Richard H. Becker
An integrated (Very Low Frequency [VLF] electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and Geographic Information System [GIS]) study was conducted over the basement complex in Southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (date: 17, 18 Jan 2010; amount: 34 mm) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) The distribution of the water bearing features (conductive features) correspond to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) About 85 % of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) NW-SE to N-S trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (SE to NW) at low angles, capture groundwater flow; (4) NE-SW to E-W features, that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations. Similar findings are observed in Central Sinai: E-W trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede S to N groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m a.m.s.l) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (S to N to SW to NE). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere.
Mohamed, Lamees, "Structural Controls on the Distribution of Groundwater in Southern Sinai, Egypt: Constraints from Geophysical and Remote Sensing Observations" (2015). Dissertations. 593.
5th Advisor: Dr. Christopher J. Schmidt
6th Advisor: Dr. Michelle Kominz