Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Ron Van Houten

Second Advisor

Dr. Richard Malott

Third Advisor

Dr. Alan Poling

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Carissa McQuiston


In-street sign, driver yielding, driving behavior, pedestrian safety, transportation safety, crosswalks


This study contains five different experiments that examine the effects of several variables influencing the effectiveness of the In-Street sign and various In-Street sign configurations. Experiment 1 and 2 compared the effects of the Gateway configuration using R1-6 signs to blank fluorescent yellow-green signs arranged in the Gateway configuration on motorist yielding to pedestrians in crosswalks. The results showed that the blank signs produced an increase in yielding from 7% to 33%, while the addition of the message and symbols to the sign increased yielding to 78%. Experiment 1, 2, and 4 examined the effects of different configurations of the In-Street sign on motorist yielding. The results showed the full Gateway was the most effective configuration, placement of the edge signs in the gutter pan was slightly more effective than placement of the edge signs on the curb face, partial installation of the Gateway was less effective than the full Gateway, and the substitution of a the City Post delineator for the lane line signs was slightly less effective than the full Gateway configuration with a yielding rate of 60%. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the full Gateway and Gateway with City Post on the lane lines are effective at night. Experiment 5 demonstrated that the Gateway increased yielding at two single lane roundabouts.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access