Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Magdalena Niewiadomska-Bugaj


Gini mean difference (GMD) was proposed as a measure of income inequality by Corrado Gini in 1912. Since then it has been widely applied - mostly in theeconomics, but also in statistical and social science research.

Four statistical tests of univariate symmetry are being proposed---all based on the comparison of variation below and above the median (known or estimated) measured by the GMD. These tests are applicable to the data from populations with median known and unknown, and each of them has its rank-basedcounterpart, so they can also be used for ordinal data.

A Monte Carlo simulation study was performed to study the properties of new tests and compare them with existing ones. It has been found that the proposedtests favorably compare with other procedures.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access