Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering


The objective of my work was to show experimentally with the use of statistics whether it is more beneficial to optimize the degree of substitution of a cationic starch rather than the addition rate to maximize retention.

Fines retention as measured using the Dynamic Retention/Drainage Jar (Britt Jar), served as the method of experimental evaluation. Three starches were studied ranging in degree of substitution from 0.014 to 0.0833 at a constant molecular weight. Calcium carbonate was used as the filler fraction because it can be quantitatively analyzed via an EDTA titration. Starch furnish used was four, eight, and twelve pounds per ton along with a 30% filler level. Colloid Titrations were used in determining the ionic demand of the system.

As shown by multiple regression analysis of the data, it is equally beneficial to either optimize the degree of substitution or the amount added to maximize retention. In addition, the Colloid Titration Ratio was not a good predictor of the ionic demand of the system.