Date of Defense




First Advisor

Dr. Lisa Baker

Second Advisor

Dr. Kevin Armstrong

Third Advisor

Dr. Richard Spates


An extensive review of the literature supports the use of EMG biofeedback in the treatment of tension-type headache. Stress is the most popular theory for the etiology of tension-type headache. Furthermore, key studies (e. g., Holroyd et al. 1984) indicate EMG biofeedback works by helping with stress coping and other associated psychological mechanisms. Cognitive therapy also helps headache sufferers cope with stress and studies show cognitive therapy has both greater efficacy and longer lasting effects. Furthermore, many studies cite more favorable results with combination cognitive therapy versus cognitive therapy or another treatment alone; however, a few studies assert that the combination treatments may be unnecessary. Most importantly, much of the research supports taking individual variables into account for choosing cognitive therapy or EMG biofeedback for the treatment of tension-type headache.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Campus Only