When the preparation of a final report of the Emil Schwarzhaupt Foundation was first envisaged, it was assumed that it would deal primarily with education for citizenship and, hence, would be primarily of interest to civic educators. However, because so much of its grant program involved efforts to form community organizations or to use other kinds of groups (e.g. 4-H club groups or boys clubs) as vehicles within which certain behaviors might be changed, it became evident that other kinds of professionals such as social workers or community health educators might find the experiences of its grantees to be useful.

A review of materials dealing with these stories suggests that successes or failures were affected by choices made with respect to certain elements of the organizing effort such as whether to recruit individuals or organizations or whether conciliation or confrontation should be the preferred tactic.

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