The "outside-change agent" is dangerous, something to be feared (based on past experiences, long since blurred by boredom and powerlessness) and not taken into the community. The outsider offers few, if any, tangible immediately useable resources -- only promises and fancy talk. Limited experience has taught the Appalachian that promises fade into misery and fancy talk to poverty. The self-fulfilling prophesy of inhospitality and disbelief in oneself, turn the Appalachian against the change agent and challenge the agent to leave the area out of self-felt persistent futility.
Gordon, Barry R. and Rubenstein, Daniel I.
"The Socially Constructive Aspects of Outside Agents in Community Decision-Making in a Rural Area,"
The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare: Vol. 2
, Article 4.
Available at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol2/iss4/4
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