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This paper has emphasized the importance of evaluative research as an integral component for both explorations and demonstrations, particularly for its contribution to planning in criminal justice. In so doing, an attempt has been made to differentiate the purposes and, consequently, the appropriate research strategies for evaluating these projects. The research of explorations aimed to facilitate the process of conceptualizing and operationalizing "innovative" services into testable demonstrations. To increase the validity and generalizability of individual demonstration projects, replications in different places under varying conditions are needed. According to Wholey, however, many small studies have been carried out around the country which lack uniformity of design and objectives. Thus, results have been rarely comparable or responsive to the questions facing policy makers (Wholey, 1971: 15). To remedy this situation there would be some merit in following Rivlin's suggestion that funding organizations take the leadership in organizing, funding and evaluating systematic experiments with various ways of implementing programs (Rivlin, 1971: 15). Demonstration projects could then be planned in response to established priorities in the overall process of program development and/or policy-making while allowing for some random innovation.

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