This article reviews historical developments in the social institution of foster care, leading up to the permanent planning revolution and current family preservation policies in the United States. Success rates of adoption, family preservation, and family reunification programs are examined, and a rationale for the inclusion of "permanent foster care" as an option for children is presented. Permanent foster care has several advantages: 1) it is federally and automatically funded; 2) it can lead to increased supervision of foster parents; 3) it creates more permanence for more children; 4) it promotes attachment through ensuring both child and foster parent stability. Models for permanent foster care already exist, in long-term foster care arrangements for special-needs children, and in subsidized adoption.

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