This article reports on the hate crime victimization experienced by thirty individuals over the course of their homelessness in a New England city. Indepth interviews were conducted with the participants in order to provide a detailed, contextual account of the nature and forms of their hate crime victimization in public and semi-public spaces. Central to the article is the argument that hate crimes against homeless people function as informal social control mechanisms that impose spatial constraints, not unlike the character and objectives of the warning-out laws that were used to exclude homeless people from the public and private space of early New England communities.
"Hate Crimes Against the Homeless: Warning-Out New England Style,"
The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare: Vol. 32
, Article 10.
Available at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol32/iss4/10