Time volunteering, religious giving, secular giving, nonprofit organizations, social integration, social embeddedness, religious identification


Using data from the survey Midlife Development in the United States, 2004-2006, the present study examined characteristics associated with time volunteering, religious giving, and secular giving. Multivariate analysis, guided by the theory of volunteering, showed that education and income predicted time volunteering and both religious and secular charitable giving. Generative qualities (e.g., confidence in one's skills, desire to assist others) were significant predictors of time spent volunteering and secular giving, while religious identification was the strongest predictor of religious giving. Perceived social integration was a significant predictor of time volunteering and religious giving. Implications for nonprofit organizations that need to recruit more volunteers and donors, especially during economic downturns, are discussed, including personal invitations to volunteer based on knowledge of an individual's skills and talents, encouraging meeting attendance and promoting social embeddedness, and secular organizations' appeals to religious donors based on their religious motivations.

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