rural immigration, social determinants of health, happiness, hope


In a rural Midwestern community sample (n=273), large proportions of Somalis and Whites ranked overall health as "Very good" (57% and 50%, respectively), while Hispanics (42%) considered it "Good". Across all groups, most are either "Happy" or "Very happy" with their jobs—64%, 91%, 83%—or their families—85%, 93%, 91.6%— with reference to Hispanics, Somalis, and Whites, respectively. When asked “In the past 30 days, how often did you feel hopeless?”, 83% of Somalis and two-thirds (67%) of Whites responded, "None of the time", while half (50%) of Hispanics indicated the same. Overall, Hispanics appeared to be less healthy, happy, and hopeful than their White and Somali counterparts.

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