Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. John E . Nangle

Second Advisor

Dr. Dale M. Brethower

Third Advisor

Dr. Norman M. Peterson

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The effectiveness of matrix organizational format versus outline organizational format versus self-structured study notes was tested with high school subjects. Contrary to predictions, results of a multiple choice and essay question posttest revealed a nonsignificant study aid effect, F (2, 53) = 1.17, p > .05. An interaction between passage order and subject sex was significant, F (2, 53) = 4.68, p < .05. An analysis of recall, application and analysis levels of learning again revealed a nonsignificant study aid effect, F (2, 68) = 1.53, p > .05. A difference among recall, application and analysis posttest scores was significant, F (2, 4) = 93.25, p < .05. It was noted that the mean of the Matrix Group was somewhat greater than other groups across all five measures. The probability of one of three groups outscoring other groups across five analyses would result in a chance level of occurrence of .0039. It is speculated that additional experimentation will demonstrate a significant difference in the effectiveness of study aid formats.