Date of Award


Degree Name

Specialist in Education



First Advisor

Dr. Howard E. Farris

Second Advisor

Dr. Paul Mountjoy

Third Advisor

Dr. Neil Kent

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


This study measured the effects of what was hypothesized to be the major functional component difference between the Hutchings' low-stress subtraction algorithm and the traditional algorithm: the non-alternation of regrouping and subtraction steps. A multiple baseline design was used with two groups of third grade students. Dependent measures included rate correct, rate incorrect, percent accuracy, and types of errors made. Statistical analysis of the data failed to support the position that the non-alternation of regrouping and subtracting steps in subtraction yielded superior performances with these students. Future research in this area might investigate the inclusion of zeroes in the minuends of problems and the teaching of the two procedures to entire classrooms of students.