Date of Award


Degree Name

Specialist in Education



First Advisor

Dr. Galen J. Alessi

Second Advisor

Dr. Norman Peterson

Third Advisor

Dr. Paul Mountjoy

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


High achieving fifth grade students were taught three alternate multiplication algorithms: Hutchings low stress, Gelocian lattice, and partial products (distributive algorithm using indentation). The two independent variables were the four algorithms (three alternate plus traditional) and three problem array sizes (3 x 2, 3, and 4 factors). The three dependent variables were percent accuracy, rate correct, and rate incorrect. A multi-element manipulation design across phases was used varying type of calculation procedure within sessions and type of problem array across sessions. Results showed that all three alternate algorithms were superior to the traditional algorithm on most dependent variable measures. Pre and posttesting demonstrated no regression in basic skills on concepts. On a performance questionnaire the three alternate algorithms were equally preferred over the traditional algorithm. Probe data showed Hutchings low stress to be superior, Results are used to support the use of full record notations which do not require regrouping in teaching multiplication skills.