Date of Award


Degree Name

Specialist in Education



First Advisor

Dr. Galen J. Alessi

Second Advisor

Dr. Wayne Fuqua

Third Advisor

Dr. Howard E. Harris

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The differential calculation power (rate and accuracy) of three separate procedures for addition was investigated. The Hutchings' "low-stress", Fulkerson tens method. and conventional algorithms were compared on 5x7 array addition problems. The subjects were six male first semester third grade students approximately eight and one half years of age. A multielement design was used in which the three algorithms composed the multiple elements. During the last three daily sessions the students were given free choice of algorithms to use. The results indicated that the Hutchings "Low-stress" algorithm was superior to the Fulkerson tens method, which in turn was superior to the conventional algorithm in producing efficient and accurate calculations. When given a free choice, four students chose the Hutchings "Low-stress" algorithm, two students chose the conventional algorithm, and no students chose the Fulkerson tens method.