Date of Award


Degree Name

Specialist in Education



First Advisor

Dr. Galen J. Alessi

Second Advisor

Dr. Howard Farris

Third Advisor

Dr. Joetta Long

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


This study was an attempt to compare the differential calculation power (speed plus accuracy) with addition for the conventional algorithm as compared with the Hutchings' low stress algorithm as compared to hand held calculators for high and low achievers with two levels of difficulty. Also, it is a systematic replication of Zoref's (1976) previous research. The subjects were eight third grade students, four male and four female, approximately nine years old. A multielement baseline design was used varying type calculation method within sessions and level of difficulty across sessions. The Hutchings' "low stress" algorithm produced markedly better results in correct rate, error rate, and percent accuracy than the conventional algorithm across both high and low achieving students with two different sized problem arrays. The calculator also produced markedly better results than the conventional algorithm regardless of the type of student or problem difficulty. The Hutchings' algorithm could be adopted in elementary mathematics curricula as an improved means of addition instruction.