Date of Award


Degree Name

Specialist in Education



First Advisor

Dr. Howard E. Farris

Second Advisor

Dr. Galen J. Alessi

Third Advisor

Dr. Joetta Long

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


This project proposed to develop, implement and validate an outlining preskills program utilizing a multiple-probe design (Horner & Baer 1978). The critical entry skills for any recording system (Carnine & Silbert, 1979) include: Determining the topic, main idea and supporting details of a paragraph. These skills and how to identify each in an outline were presented in the Outlining Preskills Program developed by the researcher. Measurement was taken on student responses to nine probes which tested every component and subskill presented in the program. For each component, student performance increased from a zero baseline to 50 percent or better accuracy during either the treatment or maintenance phase. The special education students, who participated in the program, learned the skills presented, though not to 100 percent mastery level. The findings from this study have implications for further revisions and testing of the Outlining Preskills Program which utilized both direct instruction and programmed instruction techniques.