Date of Award


Degree Name

Specialist in Education



First Advisor

Dr. Galen J. Alessi

Second Advisor

Dr. Howard Farris

Third Advisor

Dr. Joetta Long

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The differential calculation power (speed and accuracy) of three different addition procedures were investigated using the Hutchings " Low-stress", Fulkerson "Full-record" and conventional algorithms. The subjects were nine fourth grade students, five female and four male, approximately ten years of age. Elements of both multiple baseline and reversal designs were employed, varying the type of calculation method across phases. After exposure to each algorithm, students were given a choice of methods to use in solving a problem. Results indicated that both the Hutchings "Low-stress" and Fulkerson "Full-record" algorithms were generally superior in producing stable, accurate and efficient calculations. When given a free choice four students chose the Fulkerson "Full-record", three chose the "Low-stress" and two chose the conventional algorithms. It was suggested that future research investigate the components of each algorithm.