Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Elizabeth B. Garland

Second Advisor

Dr. Nedenia Kennedy

Third Advisor

Dr. William Cremin

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Carbonized floral remains from the Elam site (20AE195) located on the Kalamazoo River in Allegan County, Michigan are identified and analyzed in terms of the local Upper Mississippian subsistence system. The function of Elam as a specialized activity locus in the seasonal round of a late prehistoric people is examined. Interpretations of the botanical data permit hypothetical reconstruction of vegetation and natural ecosystems in the site vicinity as they were prior to Euro-American contact. A warm weather seasonal re-occupation of several months duration is indicated, with intensive exploitation of several plant and animal resources abundant in the riverine and marsh habitats adjacent to the site .