Date of Award


Degree Name

Specialist in Education



First Advisor

Dr. Joetta Long

Second Advisor

Dr. Neil Lent

Third Advisor

Dr. Galen Alessi

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


This study involved a comparison of three different calculation procedures for solving two different sizes of subtraction problems. A multi-element baseline design was used with three subjects: 2 females and 1 male, whose ages were 9.6, 24, and 8.1, respectively. The calculation procedures were varied randomly within, sessions, and the problem sizes varied randomly across sessions. Dependent measures included rate correct, rate incorrect, and percent accuracy. For all subjects, the conventional algorithm was the fastest calculation procedure. Accuracy data were not as consistent, since they varied across subjects and problem array sizes. Future research in this area might involve larger problems, and/or attempt to control for learning histories (i.e., use naive learners, or use a different base other than base 10).