Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Dr. W. Thomas Straw

Second Advisor

Dr. William B. Harrison III

Third Advisor

Dr. Richard Passero

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The range and distribution of carbonate hardness in Kalamazoo County lakes were determined and hydrologic factors thought to control hardness were evaluated. Surface-water samples were collected from thirty- five randomly selected lakes in October, 1980. Carbonate hardness ranged from 16 to 244 mg/1 with 61 percent above 120 mg/1. Ten hydrologic variables were analyzed with respect to lake hardness. Lakes with a surface-water inlet were a ll hard (greater than 180 mg/1) and lakes at least two meters higher than the approximate ground-water table were all relatively soft (less than 100 mg/1). No direct correlations were found between the other variables analyzed and lake water hardness. Generalized statements about the primary controls of lake-water hardness cannot be made due to the number and complexity of hydrologic variables. Each lake has a unique hydrologic setting and detailed investigations would be necessary to adequately explain the lake-water hardness.

Included in

Hydrology Commons