Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Geological and Environmental Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. W. Thomas Straw

Second Advisor

Dr. William B. Harrison III

Third Advisor

Dr. Richard Passero

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The range and distribution of carbonate hardness in Kalamazoo County lakes were determined and hydrologic factors thought to control hardness were evaluated. Surface-water samples were collected from thirty- five randomly selected lakes in October, 1980. Carbonate hardness ranged from 16 to 244 mg/1 with 61 percent above 120 mg/1. Ten hydrologic variables were analyzed with respect to lake hardness. Lakes with a surface-water inlet were a ll hard (greater than 180 mg/1) and lakes at least two meters higher than the approximate ground-water table were all relatively soft (less than 100 mg/1). No direct correlations were found between the other variables analyzed and lake water hardness. Generalized statements about the primary controls of lake-water hardness cannot be made due to the number and complexity of hydrologic variables. Each lake has a unique hydrologic setting and detailed investigations would be necessary to adequately explain the lake-water hardness.

Included in

Hydrology Commons