Betty P. Zook

Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Paul T. Mountjoy

Second Advisor

Dr. Chris Koronakos

Third Advisor

Dr. David O. Lyon

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Blind and sighted subjects were tested on their capability to retain information after both reading and listening to specially prepared printed and taped materials. The sample consisted of graduate students and professional individuals. It was found that, on the average, subjects retained more after reading than listening. This effect was more pronounced in the braille reading subjects. As the level of complexity of the material increased, the difference in the points earned between the two modalities, reading and listening, increased significantly. A behavioral analysis suggested some reasons for this difference. It was suggested that further research into reading and listening skills would have implications for teaching methodology, especially for blind students.