Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Cheryl Poche

Second Advisor

Dr. Jack Michael

Third Advisor

Dr. Norman Peterson

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The present study tested a procedure to establish vocal mands in a 47- year-old non-verbal male with Down's syndrome and manually signed mands in a 64-year-old severely retarded female who was physically incapable of speech. In a multiple baseline design across subjects and settings, subjects were taught to complete four behavioral sequences. An establishing operation was then introduced: an item required to complete each sequence was systematically removed once as a probe for manding. Following this, relevant establishing operations were paired with imitative prompts to train manding missing items. Following mastery of a ll mands during booster training, subjects were tested for the presence of tacting. The male subject learned 20 vocal mands and demonstrated 16 tacts. The female learned 21 mands and demonstrated 7 tacts. Three conclusions were presented and discussed. First, tact training is not necessary before mand training. Second, tacts may be demonstrated without direct training. Finally, the item need not be present to teach manding.