Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Richard Brewer

Second Advisor

Dr. Leo VanderBeek

Third Advisor

Dr. Joseph Engemann

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Production of frass (insect fecal material) was determined for five slightly different oak forest habitats in Allegan State Game Area, Allegan County, Michigan, for the 1968 growing season. Frass samples were collected on 30 or more 9X9 inch collecting surfaces in each of the study areas. It was found that 1.66 grams or 87.36 square inches of white oak leaf consumed was the equivalent of one gram of frass produced. This was determined from five muslin bags enclosing white oak branches and containing fifteen assorted insect larvae from four species believed to be responsible for most of the frass production on the study areas. Core samples were taken from white oak and black oak leaves to determine any differences in leaf weight at the time of consumption and after natural leaf fall. Frass production on an acre basis by weight and the maximum available energy to be transferred to the next trophic level ranged from 17,909 gms and 26,612 Kcal for the small oak area to 3,948 gms and 5,867 Kcal for the large pine area.