Date of Award
Master of Arts
Dr. Raymond L. Janes
Dr. Stephen I. Kukolich
Mr. James E. Kline
Masters Thesis-Open Access
Paper contains an uneven distribution of fiber fractions through its cross section. The objective of this study was to determine how the rate of formation affected the structure and properties of paper. The structure of paper was analyzed with reference to the cross-sectional distribution of fines and the fines to long fibers ratio in the paper.
The formation rate and distribution of fins were varied by applying a vacuum to the British sheetmold system. As the fines were a different color than the long fibers, their distribution was determined by analyzing the brightness values of layers split from the paper.
The fines used in this study had a substantial effect on paper properties when added to a relatively unbeaten chemical pulp. In general, these additions increased increased the breaking length, burst, density, and fold and decreased the tear and air permeability of paper. An increase in the rate of formation was found to decrease the tear and air permiability of paper. An increase in the rate of formation was found to decrease the ratio of fines to long fibers, although the over-all retention of fibers was increased. Also, the distribution of fines through the thickness of the paper became more disproportionate as the formation rate was increased. Through these two effects, an incense in the rate of formation was found to decrease many strength properties of paper.
Reif, William M., "The Effect of the Rate of Formation on the Structure and Properties of Paper" (1969). Masters Theses. 3087.