Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Timothy Diamond

Second Advisor

Dr. Ronald Kramer

Third Advisor

Dr. Gregory Howard

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


This study is an investigation of European football fans, known as hooligans. For this research, I went to the European Football Championships in the summer of 2000. During a two-month field research project, I observed the soccer games and the many fans who gathered for the tournament. In the course of the research, I spoke with several individuals and explored the existing literature in the sociology of sport. This work has been created through a combination of my own ethnographic work, and an extensive literature review. I have attempted to interweave both my own experiences and those of others to help me in the exploratory process.

I concluded from my research that the sport of soccer and the wider world within which the game is situated are very much connected. My research also showed that the locale of the violence has shifted from the arena to the much larger cities. Policing hooligans has become a major issue for those interested in holding soccer events; and many distinctions can be made between hooliganism within countries and hooliganism internationally.