Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Susan M. Carlson

Second Advisor

Dr. Elena B. Lisovskaya

Third Advisor

Dr. David J. Hartmann

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


This study examined the influence of teacher expectations based on student's and teacher's race on academic achievement of white versus black students using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Modeling of interaction terms in level-1 resulted in six separate models (two for reading, and four for math). A two-level hierarchical linear modeling with students at level-1 and schools at level-2 was used in each model with application of a three-step modeling procedure in each analysis.

The results of the study were consistent with previous research that black students had lower achievement, and also elicited lower teacher expectations regarding achievement than white students in all six models. The study results also suggested significant association between student's and teacher's race, and teacher's expectations as it relates to the achievement gap between white versus black students in the four math models. Both white and black teachers had higher expectations of white students than black students. The association between school type and student's achievement showed mixed results. Public schools had lower achievement than private and Catholic schools in one reading and one math model, and higher achievement than private and Catholic schools in one math model.