Mary Garrod

Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Christina D. Chin

Second Advisor

William Charland, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Richard de Peaux, M.F.A.


Self-assessment, peer-assessment, efficacy, art education, middle school

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Students’ intentional development as independent learners is increased with the understanding of self efficacy, which contributes to motivation, persistence for learning, and future achievements. However, adolescence is a time when self efficacy and motivation in art often decline. Two effective teaching and learning practices that can aid middle school art educators in the development of adolescent student judgment skills and confidence as independent learners, are self assessment and peer assessment. This paper presents literature on the topics of peer assessment, self assessment, and their link to self efficacy beliefs in adolescents. It then provides applicable, research-based self and peer evaluation techniques for facilitating students’ motivations within the context of the middle school art room, and discussion of benefits with the purpose of shining a light on the positive results of peer and self reflective evaluations, therefore validating the use of a variety of evaluation techniques in the middle school art classroom. The study results also help determine and document which techniques best increase students' positive mindsets, confidence, independence, and motivation in the art classroom in order to break the negative mindset of so many young artists, and provide useful information and insights for other middle school art educators.