Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. William Cremin

Second Advisor

Dr. Elizabeth Garland

Third Advisor

Dr. Janet Brashler

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Middle Woodland period Hopewell manifestations in western Michigan were mainly concentrated in the St. Joseph, Grand and Muskegon River Valleys. By constrast, the Kalamazoo River valley is lacking in a significant Hopewell expression, suggesting this area was peripheral to Hopewell developments elsewhere in western Michigan. The Armintrout-Blackman site (20AE812) is a Middle Woodland period encampment in the middle segment of the Kalamazoo River valley and has yielded artifacts bearing Hopewell stylistic attributes. More specifically, this thoroughly excavated site exhibits spatial separation of temporally sensitive ceramic components, reflecting early Havana-Hopewell through late Middle Woodland occupations. This project examines such a situation further through a formal analysis of the lithic assemblage. It is felt that this study will augment ceramic interpretations and contribute to a better understanding of Middle Woodland occupations within the Kalamazoo River valley.

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Anthropology Commons