Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study Evaluating Follow-Up Care Visits and Pharmacological Therapy of Individuals with Type II Diabetes and Hypertension in an Urban Community Health Center

Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Susan R. Stapleton

Second Advisor

Dr. Amy Curtis

Third Advisor

Dr. John Spitsbergen


Public health, biology, epidemiology, diabetes, hypertension

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Abstract Only

Restricted to Campus until



Type II diabetes (T2DM) is a chronic illness that affects more than 23.2 million people in the United States, including 750,000 residents in Michigan. Hypertension is a co-morbidity of T2DM. Those with both T2DM and hypertension have increased health risks. African-Americans face health disparities compared to whites and are more likely to have life-threatening illnesses from both diseases. This study used a retrospective analysis of medical records to assess followup care visits, including the pharmacological therapy of T2DM and hypertension, in an urban health care center of both white and African-American patients using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines as a template. The majority of patients did not exhibit glycemic and hypertensive control at the end of the study period (A1c = 8.13% and 77.1% ≥130/≥80, 54.3% ≥140/≥90). Inconsistent with national norms, 58% of African-Americans had A1c levels


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