Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Susan Caringella-MacDonald

Second Advisor

Dr. Gerald Markle

Third Advisor

Dr. Douglas D. Davidson

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Modeling theory proposes that consequences received by the model are considered critical in determining whether or not modeled behaviors will be imitated (Bandura, Ross & Ross, 1961).

Despite the apparent significance of consequences, analyses of children's literature have failed to explore this link. Utilizing feminist research perspectives, I sought to examine variables explored in previous analyses of picture books, with emphasis on consequences received by models. I was interested in (a) consequences received by female and male characters when engaged in instrumental/independent activities (Kortenhaus & Demarest, 1993); (b) the ways in which female and male characters are stereotyped; and (c) changes in female and male characterizations two decades.

Little Golden Books™ published over two decades were samples. Frequency counts were compiled on a number of variables. Statistical analyses were utilized to determine relationships between variables and generalizability of findings.

Characters were found to receive differential consequences by sex when engaged in socially valued activities. Female characters when visible, were portrayed in traditional roles. Characterizations remained fairly constant over the two decades examined.

Included in

Sociology Commons