Lizhuo Zhang

Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. James Howell

Second Advisor

Dr. Ralph Steinhaus

Third Advisor

Dr. Donald Schreiber

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Chlorine is widely used in industry. It is also the most commonly used disinfectant in water treatment plants. Since the amount of chlorine used is increasing each year, environmental and health concerns arise due to its reactivity with various of organic compounds. Many chlorinated organic compounds are toxic and as a result other non-chlorinating compounds, such as chlorine dioxide, might be potential substitutes in the future, especially in water treatment plants.

Previous studies have indicated that chlorinated organic compounds are not formed when chlorine dioxide is used as a disinfectant. Furthermore no reaction occurs between chlorite and phenol in the absence of activated carbon. A careful investigation of the reactions of chlorine, chlorine dioxide and chlorite with phenol was made in this study. UV/VIS absorption spectrometry, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography were extensively used in this study for separation and identification purposes.

Results show that fewer chlorinated phenolic compounds are formed when phenol is treated with chlorine dioxide relative to chlorine. Also UV/VIS and HPLC results indicate that chlorite does react with phenol in the absence of activated carbon.

Included in

Chemistry Commons