Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Geological and Environmental Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. Alan E. Kehew

Second Advisor

Dr. William B. Harrison III

Third Advisor

Dr. David Barnes

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Seven diamictons are identified in the subsurface glacial drift near Sturgis, Michigan using textural analyses and x-ray diffraction of clay minerals. The clay mineral content is quantified by comparing the 7-A/10- A peak height ratios from x-ray diffraction diffractograms of oriented clay-size particle (<2um) mounts. Two diamictons occur at the base of the drift. Unit 1 is gray , resembling the shale it overlies. The texture of Unit 1 is sandy clay loam to loam and average 7-A/10-A peak height clay mineral ratios of 0.446 ±0.069. Unit 2 is a yellowish-brown diamicton, it overlies Unit 1, and is a sandy loam to loam with average 7-A/10-A clay mineral ratio of 0.657 ±0.151. Diamicton Units 4 and 5 overlie a thick unit of sand and gravel on top of Unit 2. Units 4 and 5 have similar color and texture, however the 7-A/10-A ratios are 1.059 ±0.090 and 0.810 ±0.072 respectively. Unit 6 is a thin diamicton unit, leached of calcite, and x-ray diffraction suggests that there is a range of weathering horzins between borings. Unit 7 is loamy, whereas Unit 8 generally ranges from sandy clay loam to sandy loam with average 7-A/10-A ratios of 0.865 ±0.090 and 1.195 ±0.189.

Included in

Geology Commons