Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Geological and Environmental Sciences



First Advisor

Dr. Alan E. Kehew

Second Advisor

Dr. William Sauck

Third Advisor

Dr. Larry Taylor

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


A U.S.G.S EDMAP project in Calhoun and Branch Counties Michigan has provided stratigraphic information for hydrologic investigations. The Saginaw Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet impacted the terrain of the study area creating drumlins, tunnel valleys and moraines. Water well records, gamma Ray logs and test wells provided the necessary stratigraphic and hydrogeologic information.

The stratigraphy and hydrogeology of the study area are constrained by the bedrock topography of the Mississippian Coldwater Shale. Drift deposits 13 feet to nearly 200 feet thick comprise the aquifer systems for the study area with thicker and older deposits occupying several bedrock valleys. Drift in the northern portion of the study area is comprised of a supraglacial landform-sediment assemblage with a subglacial landform-sediment assemblage occurring in the south.

The Village of Athens has experienced groundwater contamination from nitrates. Agricultural operations are abundant in and around the village. An explanation for contamination may exist in the composition of the drift within two bedrock valleys located near the village that may provide avenues for groundwater recharge, and possible contamination.


Additional files attached.

Surficial Geologic Map for the Southern Half of the East Leroy 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, and the Northern Half of the Union City 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, Southwestern Calhoun Co. and Northwestern Branch Co., MI. Plate 1

Plate IV Cross section B--B'

Plate 5

KozlowskiPlate5.tif (141087 kB)
KozlowskiPlateI.tif (146977 kB)
KozlowskiPlateIV.tif (49165 kB)