Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Human Performance and Health Education


Health, Physical Education & Recreation

First Advisor

Dr. Timothy J. Michael

Second Advisor

Dr. Roger M. Zabik

Third Advisor

Dr. YuanLong Liu

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Mary L. Dawson

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The study attempted to determine whether an elliptical trainer is a valid exercise devise for the use in submaximal exercise testing to predict VO2 max. Each subject performed two maximal treadmill exercise tests (Bruce Protocol), and three submaximal elliptical trainer exercise tests. The graded exercise test (GXT) had the following features: (a) 3-minute stages, (b) incremental increases in resistance of three levels between stages, and (c) a cycling (step) rate of 100 per minute. The variables measured in the study were: (a) VO2 max, (b) HR, (c) RPE, and (d) workload expressed in watts. HR and watts were measured every minute of each stage, and then averaged. Overall RPE was measured on the second minute of each stage. From the variables measured, a multiple linear regression analysis was conducted using the enter method on SPSS version 10.0. Three Models were chosen for further analysis. From this analysis a final formula, Model C, was created in order to predict VO2 max, providing similar R, R2 , and SEE values (0.724, 0.525, and 4.867 respectively) to standard submaximal exercise tests. The regression formula for Model C was: VO2max = 71.14 - 11.875x1 + 2.362x2 - 0.273x3 (x1 =gender where 1=male, 2=female; x2 = termination stage, and x3 = weight in kg).