Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Human Performance and Health Education


Health, Physical Education & Recreation

First Advisor

Dr. Roger Zabik

Second Advisor

Dr. Mary Dawson

Third Advisor

Dr. Patricia Frye

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The researcher compared the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) gel and water ingested 5 min before and after 20 min of moderate-intensity running for I hour. Six dependent variables were measured: heart rate (HR), VO2, blood glucose, respiratory exchange ratio (R), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and timed exercise performance. Independent variables were condition, trials (2), and sample time. On 4 days, subjects completed a 60-min training run at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption in 20-min bouts with 3-min rests between bouts. A timed 200-m sprint followed each run. Two trials were completed with each condition. Water was given after 40 and 60 min of exercise for all trials. HR was taken every 5 min during the 60- min intermittent run. Blood samples were taken preexercise, during each 3-min rest, and postsprint. R and VO2 were measured every 20 s. RPE was determined the last 30 s of each 20-min bout. Significant differences existed: (a) in blood glucose levels, which were higher with the gel at preexercise, after 40 min, and postsprint; (b) in blood glucose for the gel condition between preexercise and both 40 min and postsprint; (c) among the times for R and 20 and 60 min for RPE; and (d) between trials, with levels greater for Trial 2 for R and Trial 1 for RPE and sprint time. The ingestion of a gel may enhance glycogen reserves for exercise, although R decreased progressively across time in all trials, indicating a greater reliance on fat utilization. Sprint performance was not improved with supplementation.