Author

Powell

Date of Award

8-1971

Degree Name

Master of Arts

Department

Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Donald W. DuCharme

Second Advisor

Dr. Jean McVay Lawrence

Third Advisor

Dr. Jack S. Wood

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access

Abstract

Introduction

Review of the Literature

Severe hypotension has long been held as being one of the most potent stimuli for activation·of the mechanisms responsible for circulatory homeostasis. It has been accepted that the most immediate response to hypotension involves activation of the autonomic nervous system causing an increased vascular tone. In addition to various neurogenic mechanisms that function to cause an increase in vascular tone, several humeral mechanisms have also been implicated.

Rocha e Silva and Rosenberg (1969) described the release of vasopressin (ADH) from the posterior lobe of the pituitary in response to hemorrhage in the dog. They postulated that the stimuli for release arose from cardiovascular sensory receptors and that vasopressin was responsible for a role in blood pressure regulation during hypotension.

A homeostatic role of the kidney during hypotension was also described by Hamilton and Collins (1942). These authors found that when blood was removed from dogs in a quantity sufficient to reduce the arterial pressure to 30 mm Hg, a difference existed in the amounts of blood removed from normal as compared to nephrectomized dogs.

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