Ko Tada

Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Human Performance and Health Education


Health, Physical Education & Recreation

First Advisor

Dr. Mary L. Dawson

Second Advisor

Dr. Roger Zabik

Third Advisor

Dr. Patricia Frye

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The problem was to compare the kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographical (EMG) aspects of walking gait while wearing flip-flops and barefoot between American and Japanese males, aged 20 to 25 years. Results indicated: (a) American stride lengths were greater than Japanese, although the results were not statistically significant; (b) Japanese ankle angle was smaller than Americans' for toe-off for barefoot, and foot strike for flip-flops; (c) the Japanese decreased the ankle angle from foot strike to toe-off, the Americans increased; (d) the Americans' foot angle was significantly different between barefoot and flip-flops; (e) the biceps femoris showed a significant difference in peak EMG between flip-flops and barefoot; (f) for flip-flops, the biceps femoris peak EMG was significantly different between the Americans and the Japanese; (g) a significant difference in the peroneal group's peak EMG existed between flip-flops and barefoot; and (h) there were no significant difference for the other muscles' peak and time to peak EMG. The conclusions were: (a) Americans and Japanese were more alike than not alike; (b) footwear had a greater influence on the gait patterns for the Americans; (c) the study provided evidence to support piston and swing system gait styles used by Asian and Western subjects, respectively.