Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences


Speech Pathology and Audiology

First Advisor

Dr. Nickola W. Nelson

Second Advisor

Dr. Robin Clark

Third Advisor

Dr. Harold (Hal) Bate

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The use of free choice drawings and contingent questions as prompts to enhance oral language development in young children with moderate to profound hearing losses was the focus of this descriptive and experimental study. The effects of contingent queries (scaffolding) on drawing and oral language were measured using a single subject experimental design in which a staggered baseline was followed by treatment replicated across two sets of students at two levels of language abilities. An extensive coding system for dependent drawing and language variables was developed and utilized for analysis.

The major findings of this study were that the use of contingent queries of the message of children's drawings is significantly related to the number of words children produce. Contingent queries improve the output and quality of children's language (to a greater degree) and drawings (to a lesser degree) differently for each child. All four children benefited from the drawing and contingent query approach.