Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Chansheng He

Second Advisor

Dr. Benjamin Ofori-Amoah

Third Advisor

Dr. Kathleen Baker

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The aim of the study is to describe the fluoride concentration of water samples primarily from sources used for household needs in selected villages of Eritrea, with emphasis on the most severely affected parts of the country. Water sample quality data were collected from The Water Resource Department of Eritrea and water quality reports indicated that high levels of fluoride content were found for some villages' groundwater sources. The highest concentration was found in Aquar, 7.7 mg/L; Northern Red Sea region, above the 1.5 mg/L Maximum concentration recommended by The World Health Organization.

Waters with high fluoride concentrations occur in extensive geographical belts associated with a) sediments of marine origin in mountainous areas, b) volcanic rocks, and c) granitic and gneissic rocks. Geological basis for high concentrations of high fluoride in Eritrea are presumed to be the pegmatite intrusion hosted by granitic batholiths and water interaction with volcanic rocks. Significant positive correlations were also observed between dental caries prevalence rate and high fluoride distribution in the study area.

Included in

Geography Commons