Date of Award
Master of Science
Geological and Environmental Sciences
Dr. Alan E. Kehew
Dr. William Sauck
Dr. Daniel Cassidy
Dr. Jay Means
Masters Thesis-Open Access
The focus of this investigation of the Lakeside Refinery site is the inorganic geochemistry because previous investigations concerned organics and heavy metals. Because little nitrate is in native groundwater, high dissolved ammonia immediately downgradient from a petroleum body suggests the source is the petroleum and/or associated byproducts. Iron reduction is most prominent immediately upgradient from the known and measurable petroleum while manganese reduction occurs mostly downgradient. Sulfate reduction occurs mostly towards the southern portion of the light petroleum LNAPL. Based on concentrations of nitrate, manganese, iron and sulfate along a groundwater flow path, there appears to be a sequential use of TEAPs at Lakeside. A plot of Ca+Mg versus HCO3 - suggests that changes in carbon dioxidecarbonate equilibria are significant. Calcite is generally more oversaturated than dolomite. When considering values of TOC, silica and pH, silica concentrations are likely elevated by petroleum related, organic acid-enhanced quartz dissolution.
Apparent free product measurements indicate a significant increase in volume of petroleum when compared with previous data. The most likely source of the free product increase is perched petroleum that may be fed to the known petroleum via a suspected buried channel. Based on modeling using BIOSCREEN, the availability of electron acceptors, BTEX concentrations and apparent free product measurements, the light petroleum body's estimated half-life is 20 years.
Carlson, "Inorganic and Organic Chemistry of the Former Lakeside Refinery in Kalamazoo, Michigan" (2002). Master's Theses. 4773.